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North Carolina State Mediation Standards of Practice

These are the standards of practice adopted by the North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commision, May 10, 1996.


These standards are intended to instill and promote public confidence in the mediation process and to be a guide to mediator conduct. As with other forms of dispute resolution, mediation must be built on public understanding and confidence. Persons serving as mediators are responsible to the parties, the public and the courts to conduct themselves in a manner which will merit that confidence. These standards apply to all mediators who participate in mediated settlement conferences pursuant to NCGS 7A-38.1 in the State of North Carolina or who are certified to do so.

Mediation is a private and consensual process in which an impartial person, a mediator, works with disputing parties to help them explore settlement, reconciliation and understanding among them. In mediation, the primary responsibility for the resolution of a dispute rests with the parties.

The mediator’s role is to facilitate communication and recognition among the parties and to encourage and assist the parties in deciding how and on what terms to resolve the issues in dispute. Among other things, a mediator assists the parties in identifying issues, reducing obstacles to communication and maximizing the exploration of alternatives. A mediator does not render decisions on the issues in dispute.

I. Competency:

A mediator shall maintain professional competency in mediation skills and, where the mediator lacks the skills necessary for a particular case, shall decline to serve or withdraw from serving.

A. A mediator’s most important qualification is the mediator’s competence in procedural aspects of facilitating the resolution of disputes rather than the mediator’s familiarity with technical knowledge relating to the subject of the dispute. Therefore a mediator shall obtain necessary skills and substantive training appropriate to the mediator’s areas of practice and upgrade those skills on an ongoing basis.

B. If a mediator determines that a lack of technical knowledge impairs or is likely to impair the mediator’s effectiveness, the mediator shall notify the parties and withdraw if requested by any party.

C. Beyond disclosure under the preceding paragraph, a mediator is obligated to exercise his judgment whether his skills or expertise are sufficient to the demands of the case and, if they are not, to decline from serving or to withdraw.

II. Impartiality:

A mediator shall, in word and action, maintain impartiality toward the parties and on the issues in dispute.

A. Impartiality means absence of prejudice or bias in word and action. In addition, it means a commitment to aid all parties, as opposed to a single party, in exploring the possibilities for resolution.

B. As early as practical and no later than the beginning of the first session, the mediator shall make full disclosure of any known relationships with the parties or their counsel that may affect or give the appearance of affecting the mediator’s impartiality.

C. The mediator shall decline to serve or shall withdraw from serving if:

(1) a party objects to his serving on grounds of lack of impartiality, or
(2) the mediator determines that he cannot serve impartially.

III. Confidentiality:

A mediator shall, subject to statutory obligations to the contrary, maintain the confidentiality of all information obtained within the mediation process.

A. Apart from statutory duties to report certain kinds of information, a mediator shall not disclose, directly or indirectly, to any nonparty, any information communicated to the mediator by a party within the mediation process.

B. Even where there is a statutory duty to report information if certain conditions exist, a mediator is obligated to resolve doubts regarding the duty to report in favor of maintaining confidentiality.

C. A mediator shall not disclose, directly or indirectly, to any party to the mediation, information communicated to the mediator in confidence by any other party, unless that party gives permission to do so. A mediator may encourage a party to permit disclosure, but absent such permission, the mediator shall not disclose.

D. Nothing in this standard prohibits the use of information obtained in a mediation for instructional purposes, provided identifying information is removed.

IV. Consent:

A mediator shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that each party understands the mediation process, the role of the mediator and the party’s options within the process.

A. A mediator shall discuss with the participants the rules and procedures pertaining to the mediation process and shall inform the parties of such matters as applicable rules require. A mediator shall also inform the parties the following:

(1) that mediation is private;
(2) that mediation is informal;
(3) that mediation is confidential to the extent provided by law;
(4) that mediation is voluntary, meaning that the parties do not have to negotiate during the process nor make or accept any offer at any time;
(5) the mediator’s role; and
(6) what fees, if any, will be charged by the mediator for his services.

B. A mediator shall not exert undue pressure on a participant, whether to participate in mediation or to accept a settlement; nevertheless, a mediator may and shall encourage parties to consider both the benefits of participation and settlement and the costs of withdrawal and impasse.

C. Where a party appears to be acting under undue influence, or without fully comprehending the process, issues or options for settlement, a mediator shall explore these matters with the party and assist the party in making freely chosen and informed decisions.

D. If after exploration the mediator concludes that a party is acting under undue influence of is unable to fully comprehend the process, issues or options for settlement, the mediator shall discontinue the mediation.

E. In appropriate circumstances, a mediator shall encourage the parties to seek legal, financial, tax or other professional advice before, during or after the mediation process. A mediator shall explain generally to pro se parties that there may be risks in proceeding without independent counsel or other professional advisors.

V. Self Determination:

A mediator shall encourage self-determination by the parties in their decision whether, and on what terms, to resolve their dispute, and shall refrain from being directive and judgmental regarding the issues in dispute and options for settlement.

A. A mediator is obligated to leave to the parties full responsibility for deciding whether and on what terms to resolve their dispute. He may assist them in making informed and thoughtful decisions, but shall not impose his judgment for that of the parties concerning any aspect of the mediation.

B. Subject to Section A. above and Standard VI. below, a mediator may raise questions for the parties to consider regarding the acceptability, sufficiency and feasibility, for all sides, of proposed options for settlement–including their impact on third parties. Furthermore, a mediator may make suggestions for the parties’ consideration. However at no time shall a mediator make a decision for the parties, or express an opinion about or advise for or against any proposal under consideration.

C. Subject to Standard IV.E. above, if a party to a mediation declines to consult an independent counsel or expert after the mediator has raised this option, the mediator shall permit the mediation to go forward according to the parties’ wishes.

D. If, in the mediator’s judgment, the integrity of the process has been compromised by, for example, inability or unwillingness of a party to participate meaningfully, gross inequality of bargaining power or ability, gross unfairness resulting from non-disclosure or fraud by a participant, or other circumstance likely to lead to a grossly unjust result, the mediator shall inform parties. The mediator may choose to discontinue the mediation in such circumstances but shall not violate the obligation of confidentiality.

VI. Separation of Mediation from Legal and Other Professional Advice:

A mediator shall limit himself solely to the role of mediator, and shall not give legal or other professional advice during the mediation.

A mediator may, in areas where he is qualified by training and experience, raise questions regarding the information presented by the parties in the mediation session. However, the mediator shall not provide legal of other professional advice whether in response to statements or questions by the parties or otherwise.

VII. Conflicts of Interest:

A mediator shall not allow any personal interest to interfere with the primary obligation to impartially serve the parties to the dispute.

A. The mediator shall place the interests of the parties above the interests of any court or agency which has referred the case, if such interests are in conflict.

B. Where a party is represented or advised by a professional advocate or counselor, the mediator shall place the interests of the party over his own interest in maintaining cordial relations with the professional, if such interests are in conflict.

C. A mediator who is a lawyer or other professional shall not advise or represent either of the parties in future matters concerning the subject of the dispute.

D. A mediator shall not charge a contingent fee or a fee based on the outcome of the mediation.

E. A mediator shall not use information obtained during a mediation for personal gain or advantage.

F. A mediator shall not knowingly contract for mediation services which cannot be delivered or completed as directed by a court or in a timely manner.

G. A mediator shall not knowingly contract for mediation services which cannot be delivered or completed as directed by a court or in a timely manner.

H. A mediator shall not give or receive any commission, rebate, or other monetary or non-monetary form of consideration from a party or representative of a party in return for referral of clients for mediation services.

VIII. Protecting the Integrity of the Mediation Process:

A mediator shall encourage mutual respect between the parties, and shall take reasonable steps, subject to the principle of self-determination, to limit abuses of the mediation process.

A. A mediator shall make reasonable efforts to ensure a balanced discussion and to prevent manipulation or intimidation by either party and to ensure that each party understands and expects the concerns and position of the other even id they cannot agree.

B. When a mediator discovers an intentional abuse of the process, such as nondisclosure of material information or fraud, the mediator shall encourage the abusing party to alter the conduct in question. The mediator is not obligated to reveal the conduct to the other party, (and subject to Standard V.D. above) nor to discontinue the mediation, but may discontinue without violating the obligation of confidentiality.


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